3/18/16: APOLLO LUNNIK CHANG’E 1: THE COW JUMPED OVER THE MOON
APOLLO LUNNIK CHANG’E 1
THE COW JUMPED OVER THE MOON
Contrary to popular history, the idea of a lunar mission wasn’t born with President Kennedy’s 1961 commitment to the United States to land a man on the Moon by the end of the decade.
It can be argued that it all goes back to a science fiction idea that was written by Jules Verne in the mid 19th century, “From the Earth to the Moon” was one of the first science fiction stories that inspired a mission to the Moon and it was an inspiration for rocket scientists like Werner Von Braun to turn dreams of spaceflight into reality.
There was also the well-known silent film, Voyage to the Moon, which was a 1902 French film directed by Georges Méliès.
In 1957, Russia was working on its space program and had no idea that they were part of some race for space.
They merely studied and prepared their country for the next phase in their evolution. The United States was being devastated by Russian space breakthroughs. Using that bold American, spirit our government created a hypothetical “Space Race.”
It was promoted and encouraged because Russia was the first to launch a satellite into space, an animal into space, and while we couldn’t even get a rocket off the ground or keep it in the sky for 5 minutes they were ready to go to the Moon. The Luna-1 rocket was able to do a fly by over the moon snapping pictures and the Luna two was able to reach the Moon and drop off Communist chotchkies on the lunar surface.
Back on American launch pads many of the rockets would just explode on the launch pad. They attempted a satellite launch with project Vanguard and it failed. Four months after Russia successfully launched Sputnik 1, The United States successfully launched Explorer 1 into space. The Russians had already launched the dog, Laika into space, but she later died six hours into the flight.
The U.S. sent up monkeys and brought them back alive. The Russians had successfully sent a man into space and brought him back alive. The Russians sent rockets to the moon. The United States claimed they put a man on the Moon.
Russia was flummoxed. How did that happen? How could it have happened? They were stunned. They were in the process of landing a man on the Moon and they couldn’t do it.
This was the so-called space race. It was kind of like a fat kid showing up at the track, watching a toned athlete run several laps and then saying to him “I have been watching you run, and I can run too, I know you can run better than me, but I know I can beat you.” The athlete doesn’t take the kid seriously until he does win the race, A race the athlete didn’t want to run, but felt compelled to run just to teach the kid a lesson.
While everyone knows of the success of our Moon landing, many do not know or are unaware of what Russia had done to get to the Moon and back. As the race was getting heated, Russia kept many secrets about their space programs. According to conspiratorial history, Russia actually had two space programs.
The program the public saw and the darker more serious side where horrific things took place and cosmonauts would lose their lives for their country. The darker side of the space race is seldom spoken of. There are people who say that there is no proof that there were horrible accidents in space, however there are some stories that circulate in Russia and even in the United States about how it is suspect that we could land a man on the Moon and successfully bring him back on our first try when Russia had tried and lost many men and women in the attempt.
Then came the talk about making a Moon landing a reality. Before creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, President Eisenhower gave both the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Army permission to launch two lunar probes each. These probes were called Pioneer 1 and 2 and were designed with the intention of taking pictures and collecting data throughout their flights to the Moon. The Air Force chose the TRW Company to build its probes, Pioneers 1 and 2, while the Army chose JPL to build its Pioneers 3 and 4.
At the time NASA consisted of only about 8,000 employees and an annual budget of $100 million. In addition to a small headquarters staff in Washington that directed operations, NASA had at the time three major research laboratories inherited from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics-the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory established in 1918, the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory activated near San Francisco in 1940, and the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory built at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1941 -and two small test facilities, one for high-speed flight research at Muroc Dry Lake in the high desert of California and one for sounding rockets at Wallops Island, Virginia.
It soon added several other government research organizations.
Around the same time in the spring of 1958, the Soviet government approved a program for lunar exploration Lunnik or Luna. Luna focused on exploring the Moon and its environment with robotic probes called Ye 1 through 4.
Ye-1 was designed for lunar impact, Ye-2 and Ye-3 were intended to image the Moon’s far side, and Ye-4 was a spacecraft to impact the Moon with a nuclear explosion.
The US Air Force also devised a top-secret plan to detonate a nuclear bomb on the Moon as a display of military might during the Cold War. The project was called A-119. The explosion was to be conducted on the far side of the Moon. The bomb was planned to be detonated on the edge of the Moon and the mushroom cloud would be illuminated by the Sun. The bomb was supposed to be at least as large as the one used on Hiroshima at the end of World War II.
The main aim of the proposed detonation was a PR exercise and a show of one-upmanship to the Soviet Union. The Air Force wanted a mushroom cloud so large it would be visible on Earth. The US was lagging behind in the space race and they were convinced that dropping an atomic bomb on the Moon would send a message of Military might to the Communists.
In the barky 1960’s it appeared that the Soviet Union and United States were focusing more energy on planetary missions than continued flights to the Moon.
However, around the same time same, Sergei Korolev, the father of the Soviet space program, was one of the first leaders in the country’s space industry, to raise the possibility of building a long-term outpost on the surface of the Moon. In the wake of the first Soviet successes in sending unmanned probes to the Moon, Korolev published an article in Pravda, the official publication of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
In the article, bylined “Professor K. Sergeev,” Korolev outlined in general terms his plans for space exploration, including lunar expeditions: “The opportunity for direct exploration of the Moon causes a particular interest, first with the landing of automated scientific probes… and later by ways of sending researchers and constructing a habitable scientific station on the Moon.”
In 1962, Korolev further discussed the idea of the lunar base in the “Notes on Heavy Interplanetary Spacecraft and Heavy orbital Station,” which were not been published until two decades later. In the “Notes” Korolev discussed developing infrastructure to support interplanetary travel, including a base to store consumables for interplanetary spacecraft.
The topic came up during a meeting of the Chief Designers Council, an informal governing body in the Soviet space industry, when it considered future tasks for the N1 moon rocket.
We have learned that the United States was already planning a space station on if not already constructing a lunar outpost in 1963. Of course this was before the manned Apollo program and after the proposed “Project Horizon” military outpost that was outlined by Werner Von Braun.
In June 1959, Wernher Von Braun and his group working at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Ala., issued the first part of the study of a “Lunar Military Outpost” for the US Army, called Project Horizon. Saturn-I and Saturn-II rockets, whose development started about a year earlier, were to resupply the base. The study estimated that total 245 tons of construction materials, hardware and supplies had to be shipped to the lunar surface.
On January 4th of this year I received a curious email from a man named Chris who told me that in 2013 he was cleaning out his attic and found an old file box. Inside was a folder labeled Boeing concepts lunar module 1963 lunar base. He claims that he gave one page to a friend who knew someone from NASA. He then went on to say that the page was lost it had patent numbers on it for materials, resources and supplies for the moon outpost. He sent me picture of the documents and said that he had 650 pages of conceptual designs and schematics for a lunar base set in 1963.
I told him I would be interested in obtaining them. It has been two months and I have not yet received the documents. Attempts at contacting Chris have been fruitless. I have no idea what has happened to him or the documents.
My only proof that these documents exist are the pictures that he attached to the e-mail.
The consultants on the project were Admiral George J. Dufek,( Operations and Logistics support,) Professor Z.K. Kopal, (Lunar Topography and Environment) and Professor W.R. Webber (Lunar Environment specialist).
There is a document that indicates that the payload for Base 1 is in excess of the 25,000 pound NASA restriction by 675 pounds. Also there are details and specs for a roving vehicle that was designed by General Motors.
Another document discloses the objective of the Minimum Manned Lunar base and that is to take advantage of the “international political implications” as well as the “numerous scientific advantages.”
The documents were submitted on November 15th, 1963 titled FINAL REPORT :INITIAL CONCEPT OF LUNAR EXPLORATION SYSTEMS FOR APOLLO.
The author of the study is Boeing Aerospace Seattle Washington.
Construction of the basic outpost would start in 1964 and be completed five years later.
History though says that man did not land on the Moon until 1969.
Check out the timing.
The proposal was to have the military start construction of the base on the moon in 1964 and then have it completed in 1969.
Do these documents hint at the possibility of the lunar cart being put before the horse?
We were told that the military weren’t sent to the Moon in 1969 it was NASA that sent them there. So the question is, was the military already on the moon, sent on a secret away mission and was the astronaut’ giant leap merely a show for the public to cheer on.
While the U.S. civilian program to reach the Moon, and some details of the Soviet one, were public, there were other aspects of the race to the moon that were more secretive. They included the details of earlier proposals for military activities on or near the moon, the ability to use “moonbounce” for intelligence or communications purposes, and the U.S. intelligence community’s attempt to collect and analyze information about the Soviet lunar program.
The nuclear arms race was omnipresent in the ’60s, and the Project Horizon proposal made room for its possible expansion to the moon. It pondered the pros and cons — scientifically, militarily and psychologically — of detonating a nuclear device on the Moon or nearby.
And it reflected on the possibility of using nuclear weapons in space.
Technological advances accelerated the Cold War and the space race through the 1960s, and U.S. military and intelligence agencies expounded in further papers on how the moon could be used for military purposes or intelligence gathering.
After some extensive research there were many declassified documents that may have us question the timeline of events that are part of our history.
According to the National Security Archive:
Before the mission of landing a man on the moon was definitively assigned to the civilian National Aeronautics and Space Administration, both the Army and the Air Force lobbied to establish outposts on the moon. A two-volume Army study (Document 1a) (Document 1b), Project Horizon, argued that there was a need for a military moon base that would be used to develop techniques for surveillance of both earth and space, communications relay, and operations on the lunar surface. The study examined not only the technical aspects — the necessary space transportation system, its launch, construction of the base, and communications — but political, management, policy and legal implications.
One Air Force study (Document 3), produced by the service’s Ballistic Missile Division in April 1960, had alternative titles — one classified (Military Lunar Base Program) and one unclassified (S.R. 183 Lunar Observatory Study). It laid out a six-phase effort, beginning in November 1964 and concluding with a lunar base becoming operational in June 1969. Among the options being considered, according to the study, was a Lunar Based Earth Bombardment System. The second Air Force study (Document 4), published in May 1961, was the Air Force Systems Command’s Lunar Expedition Plan — LUNEX. A key reason for such an expedition was to demonstrate that the United States could successfully compete with the Soviets in the technology sphere.
A different potential military use of the moon was found in a study (Document 3) produced by Leonard Reiffel of the Armour Research Institute at the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1959. Its title, A Study of Lunar Research Flights, did not reveal the proposed purpose of those flights — to deliver a nuclear device to the surface or to the vicinity of the moon, where it would be detonated. Also involved in the study effort was the yet-to-become-famous astronomer Carl Sagan. Many years later, Reiffell said that the “foremost intent [of such a detonation] was to impress the world with the prowess of the United States” and that the Air Force ended the project when its leadership decided the risks exceeded the potential benefits.
According to CNN:
The U.S. agencies also documented their space rivalry with the Soviet Union, how U.S. intelligence picked up Soviet anti-ballistic missile radar images, when their signals reflected off the Moon.
Intelligence officers feverishly studied Soviet space capabilities and intercepted pictures their spacecraft signaled back to Earth.
And in 1967 the CIA documented how operatives “borrowed” a Lunnik space capsule, analyzed it and returned it to the Soviets.
Allegedly, according to Russian space web secret information both the Russians and Americans established military bases on the moon and that in 1980 the lunar population of both Americans and Russians was anywhere from 100-to 500 people. Allegedly 10-15 people were then sent to Mars and that a settlement of both Military personnel and civilians was established in 2005.
In 2004, President Bush announced an ambitious plan to send astronauts back to the Moon, to create a permanent lunar colony and finally to make the first manned mission to Mars.
So which is disinformation, the Russian reports or the reports and announments to the public made by the President or to the public?
When Hacker Gary McKinnon breached security on a so-called “secure” NASA computer network he happened to hack into a series of computers in the Pentagon, NASA, and other sensitive military locations. McKinnon claimed he was seeking information on UFOs and says he found files dealing with “non-terrestrial officers” and “fleet-to-fleet transfers” involving ships not on any U.S. Navy registry.
This story makes us wonder if we are being told everything about what is going on above us. The McKinnon story is just one of the many that provide circumstantial evidence which points to the possibility that there are secret weapons and stations above us in space and possible settlements or micro bases on either the Moon or Mars.
It has been alleged that NASA is a military installation claiming to be civilian. It appears that the billions of dollars going to “philanthropic space programs” are mostly funneling into the military industrial complex.
Sure, there are missions to send probes out in space. But the real reason for NASA is to research the idea of using space as the new battlefield.